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FAIMA Business & Management Journal – volume 8, issue 1, March 2020
Data livrare: 24-09-2021
FAIMA Vol 8 - Issue 1 [March 2020]
A New Paradigm: Industry 4.0 3
The Sustainable University in the New Economic Context 5
Gabriela Vica Olariu, Stelian Brad, Mircea Fulea
Risk of the New Control Systems 19
Distribution Capacity in the Supply Chain Management 32
Titu-Marius I. Băjenescu
Factors Affecting the Use of Smartwatches 44
Andreea Barbu, Gheorghe Militaru, Ionuț Savu
The Effect of Technological Changes in Education 58
Andreea Balint, Sorin Ionescu, Andrei Niculescu
The European Union and Changes in Technology 66
Constantin Anghelache, Mădălina Gabriela Anghel, Gabriel Ştefan Dumbravă
A New Paradigm: Industry 4.0
The efforts of people to develop science and technology have been continuous, but in the history of science and technology, some revolutionary moments can be distinguished. We do not discuss the Neolithic revolution represented by the transition from migratory people (hunters, gatherers), to sedentary people (plant cultivators and animal breeders), nor the changes in the production mode, where six revolutions are likely to be distinguished. For example, after 1100, the revolution in agriculture appeared by the use of metal grommets and tools; towards 1400, a commercial revolution takes place through the emergence of banks and new types of contracts; after 1600 a scientific revolution takes place; towards 1800 there is an industrial revolution based on the use of steam and the emergence of the division of labour; after 1925 a managerial revolution took place, through separation between business owners and business leaders, and after 1960 a revolution in services took place, which led to the industrialization of services.
Regarding industrial revolutions, W. Taylor Thom (Science and Engineering and the Future of the Man – 1961) identified six such revolutions: first – wheel discovery; the second – or smelting; third – the use of steam power; fourth – the production of chemicals; fifth – electricity; sixth – transport; seventh – electronics.
J. Gimpel (Industrial Revolution in the Middle Ages – 1975), noticed that between 1050-1350 throughout Europe there was a change in creativity, an „industrial revolution” as he called it. The monastic orders had a contribution during this period, the church has not yet imposed its dogmas on us. But after 1300 a decline in creativity is observed, it is less and less innovating desire, this because the economic and social need has disappeared. The Renaissance Era was a time of revitalization of science, but less of technique.
But most researchers believe that industrial revolutions occurred after 1780. John Bernal (Science in History – 1954) identified three revolutions: the first revolution – the emergence of the steam engine (at the end of the 18th century); the second revolution – internal combustion engines (at the end of the 19th century); the third revolution – electronics (mid-20th century). But Professor Mihai Drăgănescu (The Second Industrial Revolution – 1980) considers that only two industrial revolutions took place; the first was based on the steam engine (1780), and the second was after 1970 with the advent of microelectronics.
After 2012 we can speak of the fourth industrial revolution leading to Industry 4.0. In the fourth revolution, cyber-physical systems (computer-controlled coordination systems) are created, for example, have appeared the autopilot, automatic medical monitoring, driverless cars, autonomous robots, etc. The fourth revolution is based on cybernetics, mechatronics, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithms. And as a consequence now we talk about Marketing 4.0 Quality 4.0 Communication 4.0 and who knows what other areas will become 4.0.
But as the signals of an industrial revolution appeared about 50 years before the actual revolution (the steam engine appeared before the first industrial revolution, the electric battery before the second revolution, the electronics before 2012), it could be that we are actually witnesses of the Third industrial revolution as identified by John Bernal and probably started in 1980 as appreciated by Mihai Drãgãnescu.
|Format carte||20 x 26 cm|
|Cod produs||FAIMA - 26|